Simplify each expression.
Use a Giant 1 to change each fraction so that they both have the same denominator.
Add them together as you would any fraction. Both fractions are negative so make sure your answer is, too.
by a Giant 1 so that it has the same denominator as the other term.
Change both numbers into fractions greater than one, then multiply.
See the help for part (c). Remember, dividing by a fraction is the same as multiplying by its reciprocal.