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2 function machines, arranged so the output of the top, becomes the input of the bottom: Top, input, 3, rule, f, of, x, = 5, x, minus 3, output, unknown. Bottom, input, unknown, rule, g, of, x, = open parenthesis, x, minus 1, close parenthesis, squared, output, unknown.Two function machines, and , are shown at right.

  1. Suppose , (not ), is dropped into the machine. This is written as . What is this output?

  2. Using the same function machines, what is ? Be careful! The result is different from the last one because the order in which you use the machines has been switched! With , first you find , then you substitute that answer into the machine named .