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For each of the following rational expressions, add or subtract, then simplify.

  1. The denominators are the same, so just add the numerators.

    Factor the numerator and look for a Giant One.

  1. See part (a).

  1. The product of the two denominators is the common denominator. Multiply each term by a Giant One to make the denominators the same.


    Now, subtract. Notice you are subtracting a negative in the second term.

  1. See part (c).