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State the domain, range, holes, and asymptotes for .

Horizontal asymptotes, if any, can be found by exploring limit of as and limit of as .
If either, or both, are constants, then the constant(s) is/are the horizontal asymptote(s).

Vertical asymptotes and holes occur where the denominator equals . If the zero on the denominator 'cancels out', then that is the -value of the hole. Find the -value too. If the zero in the denominator remains, then that is the vertical asymptote.

Now that you have found all holes and asymptotes... Use the -values of all holes and vertical asymptotes to restrict the domain. Also consider endpoint(s). Use the -values of all holes and horizontal asymptotes to restrict the range. Also, consider endpoint(s).