Suppose you were asked to identify lurking variables that would be associated with the news headline: “Study shows kids who were spanked have lower IQs.” Certainly, there are plenty of lurking variables to cast doubt on cause and effect. Think about what it would take to do an experiment to determine if spanking causes lower IQs. Design an experiment and point out why it is not ethical.
Make sure to include both kids who get spanked and those who do not.
How do you decide who gets spanked?