### Home > INT3 > Chapter 6 > Lesson 6.3.1 > Problem6-74

6-74.

Bias is present in the following observational studies.

1. Explain why the question in the following scenario is biased:

A political pollster seeking information on public attitudes toward funding of pornographic art by the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) asks a simple random sample of $2000$ U.S. adults, “Instead of supporting government censorship of artistic expression, are you in favor of continuing federal funding for artists whose work may be controversial?” Eight-five percent of those surveyed answered “yes.”

2. Explain why the sample in the following scenario is biased:

A flour company in Minneapolis wants to know what percentage of local households bake at least twice a week. A company representative calls $500$ households during the daytime and finds that $50$% of them bake at least twice a week.

People at home during the day are more likely to have time to bake than the general population.

3. Identify a possible lurking variable in the following scenario:

Dentists would like to determine if eating an apple a day keeps cavities away. Fifty patients who say they routinely eat an apple a day, and $50$ patients who say they eat less than one apple a week, will have their dental records checked. The dentists will compare the number of cavities in the two groups.