Bias is present in the following observational studies.
Explain why the question in the following scenario is biased:
A political pollster seeking information on public attitudes toward funding of pornographic art by the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) asks a simple random sample of
U.S. adults, “Instead of supporting government censorship of artistic expression, are you in favor of continuing federal funding for artists whose work may be controversial?” Eight-five percent of those surveyed answered “yes.”
Explain why the sample in the following scenario is biased:
A flour company in Minneapolis wants to know what percentage of local households bake at least twice a week. A company representative calls
households during the daytime and finds that % of them bake at least twice a week.
People at home during the day are more likely to have time to bake than the general population.
Identify a possible lurking variable in the following scenario:
Dentists would like to determine if eating an apple a day keeps cavities away. Fifty patients who say they routinely eat an apple a day, and
patients who say they eat less than one apple a week, will have their dental records checked. The dentists will compare the number of cavities in the two groups.