# Rudolf Clausius

In existographies, **Rudolf Clausius** (133-67 BE) (1822-1888 ACM) (**IQ**:200|#7) (ID:3.03|66) (RGM:399|1,350+) (SIG:3) (CR:660) (LH:19) (**TL**:860|#4) was a German mathematical physicist, noted for his *The Mechanical Theory of Heat* (1865), wherein he explained the two main laws of the universe, situated him as the central founder of thermodynamics.^{[1]}

## Overview

In 1875, Clausius, in his "Mathematical Introduction", opened to the work transmission principle (Coriolis, 1828) as follows:

- “Every force tends to give motion to the body on which it acts; but it may be prevented from doing so by other opposing forces, so that equilibrium results, and the body remains at rest. In this case the force performs no work. But as soon as the body moves under the influence of the force, work is performed. But, as soon as the
**body**moves under the influence of the**force**,**work**is performed.”- — Rudolf Clausius (1875), “Mathematical Introduction” (pg. 1)
^{[2]}

- — Rudolf Clausius (1875), “Mathematical Introduction” (pg. 1)

This renders, as shown adjacent, when the body moving becomes a person, wherein the question or discussion of force F_{2} becomes apparent; also problematic for many, in that it obviates ancient ideas about "will", as the force that moves people, and "free will", the premise that the will is free and determined by a "choice" that originates within the mind.

### Clausius street

In 1855, Clausius became professor at the ETH Zurich, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, where he stayed until 1867. Presently, at the location of the mechanical engineering department of ETH there is a street called Clausius street (Clausiusstrasse) named in his honor.^{[3]}

## Quotes

### Quotes | On

The following are quotes on Clausius:

- “Before
**Clausius**, truth and error were in a confusing state of mixture, and wrong answers were confidently urged by the highest authorities.”- — Willard Gibbs (1889), “Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius”
^{[5]}

- — Willard Gibbs (1889), “Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius”

### Quotes | By

The following are quotes by Clausius:

- “We might call
the ‘transformation content’ of the body, just as we termed the magnitude**S***U*[internal energy] its ‘thermal’ and ‘**ergonal**’ content. But as I hold it to be better terms for important magnitudes from the ancient languages, so that they may be adopted unchanged in all modern languages, I propose to call the ‘magnitude’*S*the**entropy**of the body, from the Greek words words η [in or the] + τροπή, meaning in ‘transformation’ (or change) [Verwandlung]. I have intentionally formed the word ‘entropy’ so as to be as similar as possible to the word ‘**energy**’; for the two magnitudes to be denoted by these words are so nearly allied their physical meanings, that a certain similarity in designation appears to be desirable.”- — Rudolf Clausius (1865),
*Mechanical Theory of Heat*(pg. 357)^{[6]}

- — Rudolf Clausius (1865),

## End matter

### See also

- Clausius cycle
- Energy of the universe is constant
- Entropy of the universe tends to a maximum

### References

- ↑ Clausius, Rudolf. (1865).
*The Mechanical Theory of Heat*(translator: Thomas Hirst). Macmillan, 1867. - ↑ (a) Clausius, Rudolf. (1858). “On the Treatment of Differential Equations which are not Directly Integrable”, Dingler’s
*Polytechnisches Journal*, 150:29.

(b) Clausius, Rudolf. (1865).*The Mechanical Theory of Heat*(§: On the Treatment of Differential Equations which are not Directly Integrable, pgs. 1-13) Thomas Hirst) (Ѻ). Macmillan & Co, 1867.

(c) Clausius, Rudolf. (1875).*The Mechanical Theory of Heat*(§:Mathematical Introduction: on Mechanical Work, on Energy, and on the Treatment of Non-Integrable Differential Equations, pgs. 1-20) (translator: Walter Browne). Macmillan & Co, 1679.

(d) Mathematical Introduction – Hmolpedia 2020. - ↑ Clausiusstrasse 8006 Zurich – Google Maps.
- ↑ Clausius photo (before 1867) - Wikipedia.
- ↑ (a) Gibbs, Willard. (1889). “Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius” (pg. 459),
*Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences*¸16:458-65.

(b) Garrison, Fielding H. (1909). “Josiah Willard Gibbs and his Relation to Modern Science, Parts I-IV” (pdf) (§1: 475),*Popular Science Monthly*, Part I: 74(27):470-84, May; Part II: 74:551-61, Jun; Part III: 75:41-48, Jul; Part IV: 75:191-203, Aug.

(c) Josiah Willard Gibbs and his Relation to Modern Science: I, II, III, IV – Wikisource. - ↑ Clausius, Rudolf. (1865).
*The Mechanical Theory of Heat*(translator: Thomas Hirst). Macmillan & Co, 1867.

### Works

- Clausius, Rudolf. (1865).
*The Mechanical Theory of Heat*(translator: Thomas Hirst). Macmillan, 1867. - Clausius, Rudolf. (1867).
*Abhandlungen Uber die: Mechanische Wärmetheorie*(*Treatises on the Mechanical Theory of Heat*)*.*Friedrich. - Clausius, Rudolf. (1875).
*The Mechanical Theory of Heat*(translator: Walter Browne). Macmillan, 1879. - Clausius, Rudolf. (1879).
*Die Mechanische Wärmetheorie*. Friedrich.

### Videos

- Anon. (2019). “Entropy: Origin of the Second Law of Thermodynamics” (YT), Kathy Loves Physics and History, Nov 25.

### External links

- Rudolf Clausius – Hmolpedia 2020.